Class Calendar

Thursday, December 11th

Science 10Same as December 10th

Biology 12

Hand in Vitamin C assignment

Finish GATTACA movie & journal page

Reminder - Protein synthesis/Mutation quiz next class

Learning Outcomes for quiz:
  • Identify roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA and ribosomes in transciption and translation
  • Determine a sequence of amino acids from DNA using a mRNA codon table
  • Use examples to explain how mutations in DNA change the sequence of amino acids and as a result may lead to genetic disorders
  • Define and give examples of mutagens

DNA Replication Update:

Here is some more information on DNA Replication & a 'interesting' rap that clearly explains the whole process...

Rap Video:

DNA Replication is Semi-Conservative
DNA replication of one helix of DNA results in two identical helices. If the original DNA helix is called the "parental" DNA, the two resulting helices can be called "daughter" helices. Each of these two daughter helices is a nearly exact copy of the parental helix (it is not 100% the same due to mutations). DNA creates "daughters" by using the parental strands of DNA as a template or guide. Each newly synthesized strand of DNA (daughter strand) is made by the addition of a nucleotide that is complementary to the parent strand of DNA. In this way, DNA replication is semi-conservative, meaning that one parent strand is always passed on to the daughter helix of DNA.

The first step in DNA replication is the separation of the two DNA strands that make up the helix that is to be copied. DNA Helicase untwists the helix at locations called replication origins. The replication origin forms a Y shape, and is called a replication fork. The replication fork moves down the DNA strand, usually from an internal location to the strand's end. The result is that every replication fork has a twin replication fork, moving in the opposite direction from that same internal location to the strand's opposite end.
When the two parent strands of DNA are separated to begin replication, one strand is oriented in the 5' to 3' direction while the other strand is oriented in the 3' to 5' direction. DNA replication, however, is inflexible: the enzyme that carries out the replication, DNA polymerase, only functions in the 5' to 3' direction. This characteristic of DNA polymerase means that the daughter strands synthesize through different methods, one adding nucleotides one by one in the direction of the replication fork, the other able to add nucleotides only in chunks. The first strand, which replicates nucleotides one by one is called the leading strand; the other strand, which replicates in chunks, is called the lagging strand.

The Leading Strand
Since DNA replication moves along the parent strand in the 5' to 3' direction, replication can occur very easily on the leading strand. As seen in , the nucleotides are added in the 5' to 3' direction. Triggered by RNA primase, which adds the first nucleotide to the nascent chain, the DNA polymerase simply sits near the replication fork, moving as the fork does, adding nucleotides one after the other, preserving the proper anti-parallel orientation.
 The Lagging Strand
The lagging strand replicates in small segments, called Okazaki fragments. These fragments are stretches of 100 to 200 nucleotides in humans that are synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork. Yet while each individual segment is replicated away from the replication fork, each subsequent Okazaki fragment is replicated more closely to the receding replication fork than the fragment before. The lagging strand must wait for a patch of the parent helix to open up a short distance in front of the newly synthesized strand before it can begin its synthesis back to the end of the daughter strand. This "lag" time does not occur in the leading strand because it synthesizes the new strand by following right behind as the helix unwinds at the replication fork.
These fragments are then stitched together by DNA ligase, creating a continuous strand.